Food in my Beard by Phil Jones
United States of Science! Brilliant map of how each state shines in science, nature and public health, courtesy of the Mother Nature Network.
The Helicoprion was a shark-like fish that arose in the oceans of the late Carboniferous 280 million years ago, and eventually went extinct during the early Triassic some 225 million years ago.
The Helicoprion kept growing new teeth throughout its life, but they did not fall out. Instead, the teeth grew in spiral fashion, with new, larger ones being added.
Emoticon game on Microbiology
We will be doing something different and fun today ^___^
We are playing the emoticon game.. But it’s on Microbiology!
The idea was come up by IfuM, the CEO and Author of Microbiology Made Easy
And I contributed some random ideas =D
I won’t be posting the answers online but you can ask for them privately and I’ll get back to you as soon as I can!
See you in the next post xo
10 insects that look like they belong in an alien world. [Click images to enlarge & for descriptions.]
10. Puss Moth Caterpillar
With their soft bodies and high protein content, caterpillars are usually incredibly vulnerable. To fend off predators, they often resort to scare tactics. Sometimes it’s in the form of bright, flashy colors; sometimes it’s in the form of mimicry—looking or acting like another, more dangerous insect. The Puss Moth caterpillar opts for mimicry, forming a bizarre looking “face” that resembles a vertebrate face scary enough to send most curious predators the other way.
The caterpillars are bright green and will often have a row of white spots on either side of their body. On the head is a pair of black “eye spots”—directly above a gaping “mouth” through which the true head of the caterpillar protrudes. The effect is startling, but it’s even creepier in action: if the caterpillar is touched anywhere on its body, it will instantly turn its “face” directly towards the attacker. Touch it somewhere else, and the head follows you, like a Mona Lisa from hell.
And if that doesn’t work, it can always spray out a mist of formic acid from the two horns on its back.
9. Devil’s Flower Mantis Idolomantis Diabolica
One of the largest types of praying mantis, the Devil’s Flower Mantis is also one of the strangest. And that’s saying a lot when you’re talking about praying mantids. Females of the species can measure up to 5 inches (13 cm) long, and have developed a range of natural coloring that allows them to mimic the Devil’s Flower, a type of orchid.
Mantids are predators, and their hunting style usually involves sitting motionless until their prey comes within reach, and then whipping their forearms out at lightning speed to snag flies, beetles, even, in some cases, birds. The Devil’s Flower Mantis uses color patterns that mimic a flower to actually lure its prey within reach.
8. Brazilian Treehopper
The image shown here is a model created by Alfred Keller, a German sculptor, in the 1950′s. But don’t let the fact that it’s a model fool you—the Brazilian Treehopper is definitely a real insect, and it’s barely even the strangest looking member of the treehopper family.
Similar to cicadas, treehopper insects are sort of like the Addams family of the insect world. Many of them sport some sort of odd structure on their backs, and we’re still not sure what the point of most of them are. In the case of the Brazilian Treehopper, the ball-like appendages are hollow chitin, and may be for the sole purpose of making it harder to eat.
7. Extatosoma Tiaratum
Anybody who’s ever seen Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom should instantly recognize this monstrosity, commonly referred to as the Giant Prickly Stick Insect. As the largest known stick insect, the extatosoma tiaratum can reach lengths of 8 inches (20 cm) and is usually covered with large thorny spikes, which double as both camouflage and defensive armor.
Most of the time this insect attempts to blend in with its surroundings, but if it feels threatened it will rear up on its hind legs and spread out its front legs, like a scorpion. Interestingly enough, it also releases a chemical that is meant to scare away predators. To humans, it smells like peanut butter.
6. Pipevine Swallowtail Caterpillar
The Pipevine Swallowtail is a beautiful fluorescent blue butterfly that’s commonly found in North and Central America. Its larvae, on the other hand, is an armored congealed-blood-red caterpillar with tinted visor shades for eyes and a quadruple row of blunt horns running across its body.
The caterpillars live in groups while they are young, but over time they will wander off on their own before entering the chrysalis stage. They also change color as they grow, shifting from red to black, while their horns take on a bright orange hue. The bright colors are a warning—Pipevine Swallowtail caterpillars feed primarily on the Pipevine, a poisonous plant, and retain the toxins from the leaves in their own bodies.
5. Atlas Moth
Most of the time, it’s the caterpillar of a moth species that looks the strangest, while the moth itself is drab and uninteresting. Apparently, the Atlas moth didn’t get the memo. With a 10 inch (25 cm) wingspan, Atlas moths are believed to be the largest moth species on the planet. They also have a very unique trait—the front tips of their wings almost perfectly resemble a snake head poised to strike.
Nicknamed the Cobra moth for obvious reasons, Atlas moths are found in Southeast Asia, where they’re farmed for their silk.
4. Tailed Emperor Butterfly Caterpillar
Take a trip to the east coast of Australia around March or April and you might run into one of these strange creatures. The caterpillar of the Tailed Emperor butterfly looks pretty normal—from the neck down. Its head, though, definitely secures it a spot on this list.
From a broad, armor-plated forehead extend four bizarre horns that would be more at home on a dinosaur than anything from this millenium. The butterflies lay their eggs in groups, usually on Illawarra Flame trees, and the alien caterpillars emerge sometime around late March.
3. Spiny Flower Mantis - Pseudocreobotra wahlbergi
Another incredible looking mantis, the Spiny Flower Mantis (Pseudocreobotra wahlbergi) is, again, a flower mantis, pulling its bizarre ornamentation from the appearance of a flower. This mantis is very small, measuring only 1.5 inches (38 mm) and is found in select locations in Southern Africa.
And like most mantids, the Spiny Flower Mantis is a voracious cannibal, and the older they get the more likely they will be to eat other mantids that come across their path. Another interesting fact is that the female’s egg sac can be nearly three time larger than its own body.
While this insect looks like the result of some bizarre genetic experiment that spliced a scorprion stinger onto a wasp, that “stinger” is actually something much more innocuous: the fly’s genitals.
Nevertheless, it makes for a bizarre looking creature. Scorpionflies, or mecoptera, can be found all over the world, and have been around since the Mesozoic age. In fact, they’re believed to have been the forerunners of most of our modern moths and butterflies, collectively grouped in the Lepidoptera order.
1. Calleta Silkmoth Caterpillar
If Jackson Pollock and God had a design meeting, they would probably come up with something similar to the Eupackardia calleta larva, also known as the Calleta silkmoth caterpillar. With a massive color range and dangerous looking barbs, the Calleta silkmoth caterpillar is something most predators stay away from.
The moth is found in the Southern US, and the color pattern of the caterpillar changes based on age and environmental factors. It feeds mostly on the Mexican jumping bean, a plant found throughout Mexico, Texas, and Arizona.
Top Pharmaceutical Products by US Retail Sales in 2011
Compiled and Produced by the Njardarson Group (The University of Arizona): Edon Vitaku, Elizabeth A. Ilardi, Jon T. Njardarson
Klebsiella pneumonia with NDM and OXA-48 carbapenemases. Scary stuff!
(double disk test for ESBL [above] and ROSCO KPC/MBL disks [below] )
Damn. Only one barely stopped k. Pneumoniea from growing.
Suppose there’s a super BMW that’s moving along the x-axis with a constant acceleration. And the graphs you see on the picture represent the situation.
So like you can see, the acceleration is constant, so the velocity increases as time increases, and in the p(t) graph you can see that the displacement of the BMW keeps getting bigger at each interval of time.
Ok let’s do the demonstrations of some kinematic equations
In the above equations, the symbol d stands for the displacement of the object. The symbol t stands for the time for which the object moved. The symbol a stands for the acceleration of the object. And the symbol v stands for the instantaneous velocity of the object; a subscript of i after the v (as in vi) indicates that the velocity value is the initial velocity value and a subscript of f (as in vf) indicates that the velocity value is the final velocity value.
** in the picture v stands for the final velocity and v0 stands for the velocity when the time was = 0 , so the initial velocity, the rest is the same except the ”d” on the picture who stands for delta, which means variation (Δ)
ok lets start with vf = vi + a*Δt
so this means that we can calculate the final velocity of the BMW if we add the initial velocity to the product of the acceleration with the amount of time in which this acceleration occured.
We can easily prove this equation by looking at the v(t) graph where the slope of the graph (Δy/Δx) gives us the acceleration Δv/Δt = a (the variation of velocity during a certain interval of time gives us the acceleration, and since its a linear function you know that the velocity is always increasing at the same rate)
Δv/Δt = a
vf - vi / Δt = a
vf - vi = a*Δt
vf = vi + a*Δt
Know let’s prove d = ((vi + vf)*Δt)/2
This one is easy to prove too, again, we just need to have a v(t) graph let’s take this one for example :
like you probably know, all the area that’s under the linear function between a certain interval of time (between 4 and 6 for example) represent the variation of position so the displacement that occured during this interval of time
because v = d/Δt so v*Δt (what you’ll do if you wanna calculate the rectangular area for example) means you’re doing d/Δt *Δt so you’ll end up having the displacement
so the area that represents the displacement is not only shown by the orange coloured triangle but also with the rectangle below the triangle.
d = area of the rectangle + area of the triangle
= vi*Δt + ((vf-vi)*Δt)/2
= vi*Δt + (vf/2 - vi/2)* Δt
= vi*Δt + vf*Δt /2 - vi*Δt/2
= vi*Δt/2 + vf*Δt/2
Now let’s prove that
vf² = vi² + 2*a*d
vf² - vi² = 2*a*d
2*a*d = 2 * Δv/Δt * (Δt(vi+vf)/2 )
= Δv * (vi+vf)
= (vf - vi ) * (vi + vf)
= vf² - vi²
done, we’re just left with one equation which is
d = viΔt+ 1/2(aΔt²)
d = viΔt+ 1/2(Δv/Δt*Δt²)
= viΔt+ 1/2(Δv*Δt)
and this last line represents exactly what you’d want to calculate if you wanted to know the area under the rectilinear function during an interval of time (the displacement) so the area of the rectangle + the area of the triangle (like i showed you in the picture earlier)
so yeah d = viΔt+ 1/2(aΔt²)
And this equation is special, because its also the equation of the curve in the p(t) graph. In fact, its the addition of 2 functions, a linear one and a parabolic one.
d = viΔt+ 1/2(aΔt²)
xf - xi = viΔt+ 1/2(aΔt²) (xf : final position, xi : initial position)
xf = xi + viΔt +1/2(aΔt²) —> position vs time
i’ll probably do another post more in details about this function but i cant now because i need more graphs difficult to find xD